Instructions for Authors

All papers, comments, figures and other material published in this journal are copyrighted by the author(s) and, unless otherwise noted, are licenced under a Creative Commons License. Papers published from 2007 to 2012 are licensed under the Creative Commons License - Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Germany and Papers published from 2013 to March 2016 under the Creative Commons License - Attribution 3.0. The use of papers published from April 2016 onwards is licensed under the Creative Commons License - Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

By submitting a paper, authors implicitly accept the authors´ contract as set out below.

General Instructions for Authors

  • The submitted manuscripts or substantial parts of them should not have been previously published or submitted for publication somewhere else. The abbreviated version of the contents for presentation at a meeting is not regarded as a publication.
  • All authors ensure that they have furnished a substantial contribution to the paper and that they are in agreement with form and contents of the manuscript. Corresponding authors confirm that they hold the copyrights to their articles as well as to the text and illustrations attached therein in the authors´ contract. If material (e.g., illustrations or tables) is used from other sources, authors must submit a written statement from the holder(s) of the copyright(s) indicating they have obtained permission to publish this material in economics. The authors of articles published by economics grant economics the right to store the articles in its databases for an unlimited period of time and to distribute and reproduce the articles electronically. The authors retain all remaining exploitation rights to their articles, subject to the condition that any further use of the articles shall make reference to their original publication in economics ("originally published in economics").
  • Authors should indicate, either in their cover letter or in the title page, whether the research reported in their paper was the result of a for-pay consulting relationship or if they or their employer has a financial interest in the topic of the paper which might constitute a conflict of interest.
  • In general, papers may be of any length but should be self-contained. Further, they should provide new findings or deal with new methods.
  • Supplementary material, such as data sets etc., should be submitted together with the manuscript (see our Data Availability Policy).
  • Authors who would like to submit replications, both confirming and disconfirming please view our guidelines for replications for more information: Guidelines for Replications
  • Authors should have in mind that, as soon as a paper is accepted as discussion paper, it will promptly be published (without any editorial changes).
  • Authors are asked to suggest potential reviewers. Ideally, these reviewers should be researchers who are not closely associated with the author (i.e., who do not work at an affiliated institution and who have not collaborated significantly with the author on research). Should this not be the case, authors are requested to so indicate. All suggested reviewers should be able to offer fair and impartial reviews of the material being submitted. When a paper is accepted as a discussion paper, the editorial office of economics sends the paper to these reviewers for comment.
  • Authors are asked to register as registered readers in order to be able to respond to comments submitted to the discussion platform for their paper.
  • After the discussion platform is closed, authors are free to submit a revised manuscript for publication in economics. Authors who intend to do so should inform the editorial office.
  • Authors can post revised versions of their articles anytime in response to the public peer review.

Guidelines for Manuscripts

  • Submission. Papers should be submitted electronically. By way of exception, they can also be submitted via email to the following address:
  • Data Sets. Authors are required to provide mathematical derivations and underlying data sets together with their papers to ensure that the results of a paper are quickly comprehensible to interested readers (see our Data Availability Policy). Papers can be accompanied by supplementary material, such as PowerPoint presentations, to help to elucidate and disseminate underlying ideas.
  • Language. Papers should be clear, concise, well organized, and written in English, with correct spelling and good sentence structure. Authors are responsible for the use of correct English.
  • Manuscript. The cover page should contain the following: title of the paper, name(s) of author(s) and main affiliations, and an abstract, complemented by JEL classification numbers and keywords. Acknowledgments and information on grants received should be presented at the end of the text. Footnotes in the paper should be numbered consecutively.
  • References. The reference list should appear at the end of the text, with hyperlinks to full-text papers on the Web, and should start on a new page. Issue numbers should be provided for all journals cited in the references. In the text, references should appear as follows: "North (1995: 29–35) finds that ..." In the literature (Alesina and Gulli 1993: 95; OECD 2000: Chapter B; Rogoff 1985a, 1985b; Stern et al. 1976) it has been shown ..." For the sake of brevity, "et al." should be used when referring to more than two authors. Names and dates in the text should correspond strictly to the list of references.
  • Formulas. Displayed formulas should be numbered consecutively on the right as (1), (2), etc. All characters should be defined and used unambiguously. Standard italicization should be used. When referring to formulas in the text, only numbers in parentheses should be used, for example, (1). At the beginning of sentences, numbers in parentheses should be preceded by the word "equation", for example, Equation (1).
  • Tables. Tables should be of a reasonable number and size. Columns should be clearly designed and explanations should be given in footnotes using letters below the table body. Only the first word in each column heading and in each entry of the stub column should be capitalized. Titles should be formatted above the tables as follows:
    Table 1: Real GNP in Germany, 1980–1992 (millions of US dollars)
  • Figures. Figures should be complete and clearly drawn. Special care should be taken to ensure that lettering and symbols are of a comparable size and readable. When labeling, initial capitalization should be used. Figures should not be overloaded with information.

Author's Contract

In submitting papers to economics the authors certify that:

They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into the following arrangements.
They warrant, on behalf of themselves and their co-authors, that:

  • the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe upon any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
  • they are the sole authors of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to economics are not in breach of any other obligation. If the law requires that the paper be published in the public domain, they will notify economics at the time of submission.
  • the paper contains nothing that is unlawful, libelous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy; they have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To their best—and currently accepted scientific—knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.

The authors agree that their papers may be published by economics under a Creative Commons License - Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).