(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)}, journal = {Economics Letters}, volume = {49}, number = {4}, pages = {407-413} } @Article{Kosters1988, author = {Kosters, M.H and Ross, M.N}, title = {A Shrinking Middle Class?}, year = {1988}, journal = {The Public Interest}, volume = {90}, pages = {3-27} } @Book{McLachlan1997, author = {McLachlan, G and Krishnan, T}, title = {The EM Algorithms and Extensions}, year = {1997}, publisher = {Wiley series in probability and statistics. Jonh Wiley\&Sons} } @Book{G2000, author = {McLachlan, G and Peel, D}, title = {Finite Mixture Models}, year = {2000} } @Misc{NationalInsuranceInstitute2004-2008, author = {Institute, National Insurance}, title = {Annual Surveys}, year = {2004-2008}, note = {Jerusalem, Israel} } @Misc{NationalInsuranceInstitute2008, author = {Institute, National Insurance}, title = {Poverty and Social Gaps, Annual Report}, year = {2008}, note = {November, Jerusalem, Israel, 1-54} } @Article{OECD2010, author = {OECD}, title = {OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies}, year = {2010}, journal = {Israel}, pages = {1-288} } @Article{RePEc-bla-revinw-v-56-y-2010-i-1-p-186-214, author = {Oliver, X and Piccoli, L and Spadaro, A}, title = {A MICROSIMULATION EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY, INEQUALITY, AND POLARIZATION EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTING THE DANISH, THE FRENCH, AND THE U.K. REDISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN SPAIN}, year = {2010}, URL = {http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:bla:revinw:v:56:y:2010:i:1:p:186-214}, abstract = {This paper provides evidence about the effects of possible reforms of the Spanish direct redistribution system. We perform an ex-ante evaluation of the impact upon efficiency, income distribution, and polarization of the replacement of the Spanish system with the ones enforced in France, the U.K., and Denmark (corporatist, liberal, and social-democratic model respectively). The analysis is performed using microsimulation models in which labor supply is explicitly taken into account. The results show that the simulated scenarios have little impact on the efficiency of the economy. We find that each of the new systems would reduce income inequality. However, when we take into consideration income polarization, the effects of the reforms are ambiguous: in some cases we observe a tendency toward an increased polarization. Copyright 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation International Association for Research in Income and Wealth 2009.}, journal = {Review of Income and Wealth}, volume = {56}, number = {1}, pages = {186-214} } @Article{Paapaa19981269, author = {Paapaa, R and Dijk, H.K. van}, title = {Distribution and Mobility of Wealth of Nations}, year = {1998}, URL = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014292197000883}, abstract = {We estimate the empirical bimodal cross-sectional distribution of real Gross Domestic Product per capita of 120 countries over the period 1960{\^{a}}{\texteuro}{\textquotedblleft}1989 by a mixture of a Weibull and a truncated normal density. The components of the mixture represent a group of poor and a group of rich countries, while the mixing proportion describes the distribution over poor and rich. This enables us to analyse the development of the mean and variance of both groups separately and the switches of countries between the two groups over time. Empirical evidence indicates that the means of the two groups are diverging in terms of levels, but that the growth rates of the means of the two groups over the period 1960{\^{a}}{\texteuro}{\textquotedblleft}1989 are the same.}, journal = {European Economic Review}, volume = {42}, number = {7}, pages = {1269 - 1293}, keywords = {Convergence}, doi = {10.1016/S0014-2921(97)00088-3}, issn = {0014-2921} } @Misc{Palacios-GonzalezF.2012, author = {Palacios-Gonz{\'{a}}lez, F and Garc{\'{\i}}a-Fern{\'{a}}ndez, R}, title = {Mixtures of Mixtures based on Multiresolution analysis, Communications in Statistics- Simulation and Computation}, year = {2013}, howpublished = {forthcoming.} } @Techreport{RePEc-inq-inqwps-ecineq2011-188, author = {Palacios-Gonz{\'{a}}lez, F and Garc{\'{\i}}a-Fern{\'{a}}ndez, R}, title = {An Intra-Group Variance based Polarization Measure}, year = {2011}, URL = {http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2011-188}, abstract = {In this paper, it will be shown that polarization not only depends on identification and alienation. There exist additional factors such as the share of power held by each of the groups and the number of groups that should be considered to compute it. Consistent with this idea and with the basic principles of polarization of Esteban and Ray (1994), we define a measure of polarization as the product of three factors: the alienation-identification, the share of power of the groups and the number groups. The first factor is defined following an identification-alienation framework based on the decomposition of the variance. This differs from the expression defined by Esteban and Ray (1994) and Zhang and Kanbur (2001). The second factor values the importance of the middle class as a factor of social stability. This factor, jointly with the third, extends and corrects the approach to polarization of Zhang and Kanbur (2001). A comparison of the defined measure is made with the main expressions existing in the studies about income polarization. For this, data derived from the ECHP (1994-2001) for Spanish Households are utilized.}, institution = {ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality}, publication\_type = {type}, number = {188}, keywords = {Polarization; inequality; conflict; k-means algorithm} } @Article{Palacios-Gonzalez2009, author = {Palacios-Gonz{\'{a}}lez, F and Garc{\'{\i}}a-Fern{\'{a}}ndez, R}, title = {A Multiresolution Analysis of Income Polarization}, year = {2009}, URL = {http://www.diw.de/documents/dokumentenarchiv/17/diw\_01.c.57620.de/garcia-fernandez.pdf}, journal = {European Journal of Economic and Social Systems}, pages = {119-142} } @Article{Pittau2006, author = {Pittau, M.G and Zelli, R}, title = {Trends in Income Distribution in Italy: A Non-Parametric and a Semi-Parametric Analysis}, year = {2006}, journal = {Journal of Income Distribution}, volume = {15}, pages = {90-118} } @Article{RePEc-bla-revinw-v-56-y-2010-i-1-p-102-122, author = {Pittau, M.G and Zelli, R and Johnson, P.A}, title = {Mixture Models, Convergence Clubs, And Polarization}, year = {2010}, month = {03}, URL = {http://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/revinw/v56y2010i1p102-122.html}, abstract = {We argue that modeling the cross-country distribution of per capita income as a mixture distribution provides a natural framework for the detection of convergence clubs. The framework yields tests for the number of component distributions that are likely to be more informative than \"bump hunting\" tests and includes a method of assessing the cross-component immobility necessary to imply a correspondence between components and convergence clubs. Applying this approach to Penn World Data for the period 1960 to 2000 we find evidence of three component densities. We find little cross-component mobility and so interpret the multiple mixture components as representing convergence clubs. We document a pronounced tendency for the strength of the bonds between countries and clubs to increase and show that the well-known \"hollowing out\" of the middle of the distribution is largely attributable to the increased concentration of the rich countries around their component means. Copyright 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation International Association for Research in Income and Wealth 2009.}, journal = {Review of Income and Wealth}, volume = {56}, number = {1}, pages = {102-122} } @Misc{Rubinstein2009, author = {Rubinstein, A}, title = {Economic Fables, (in Hebrew), Kinneret, Zmora-Bitan, Dvir}, year = {2009}, howpublished = {Also available in English under that title: www.openbook.publishers.com} } @Article{RePEc-ebl-ecbull-v-4-y-2007-i-36-p-1-6, author = {Silber, J and Hanoka, M and Deutsch, J}, title = {On the Link Between the Concepts of Kurtosis and Bipolarization}, year = {2007}, URL = {http://ideas.repec.org/a/ebl/ecbull/v4y2007i36p1-6.html}, abstract = {In a paper on the measurement of the flatness of an income distribution Berrebi and Silber (1989) showed how it was possible to derive from the Gini index a measure of the degree of Kurtosis of a distribution whose definition made it quite similar to the more famous Pearson measure of Kurtosis. This note shows that it is possible to derive from the index of flatness proposed by Berrebi and Silber (1989) a measure of bipolarization that has all the important properties one would like a bipolarization index to have.}, journal = {Economics Bulletin}, volume = {4}, number = {36}, pages = {1-6} } @Article{Tsui2000, author = {Tsui, K and Wang, Y}, title = {Ordering and New Classes of Polarisation Indices}, year = {2000}, journal = {Journal of Public Economic Theory}, volume = {2 (3)}, pages = {349-363} } @Article{Wolfson1994, author = {Wolfson, M.C}, title = {When Inequalities Diverge}, year = {1994}, URL = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117858}, journal = {The American Economic Review}, volume = {84}, number = {2}, pages = {pp. 353-358}, issn = {00028282} } @Article{RePEc-taf-jdevst-v-37-y-2001-i-3-p-85-98, author = {Zhang, X and Kanbur, R}, title = {What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make? An Application to China}, year = {2001}, URL = {http://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/jdevst/v37y2001i3p85-98.html}, abstract = {In recent years there has been much discussion of the difference between inequality and polarisation. The vast literature on inequality is held to miss out key features of distributional change, which are better described as changes in polarisation. Axioms have been proposed which capture some of these differences, and measures of polarisation, as distinct from inequality, have been suggested. The theoretical distinctions proposed in this literature are indeed interesting. But do the newly proposed measures of polarisation give different results in comparing societies over time? We address these questions for China, where dramatic increases in inequality and polarisation have been much discussed in the literature. We find that, contrary to theoretical expectation, the new measures of polarisation do not generate very different results from the standard measures of inequality. The paper ends by considering a different approach to polarisation which might better conform to the policy concerns expressed in the specific context of China.}, journal = {The Journal of Development Studies}, volume = {37}, number = {3}, pages = {85-98}, keywords = {Inequality; Distributional Change; Standard Measures; Chin} } @Phdthesis{phdthesisreference.2014-12-12.1262671355, author = {No names specified}, title = {}, year = {}, publication\_type = {type} } @Article{articlereference.2014-12-12.2023012035, author = {No names specified}, title = {}, year = {} } @Article{articlereference.2014-12-15.6334263459, author = {No names specified}, title = {}, year = {} } @Phdthesis{phdthesisreference.2014-12-15.5288309539, author = {No names specified}, title = {}, year = {}, publication\_type = {type} }