Discussion Paper

No. 2017-61 | September 15, 2017
Forced migrants: labour market integration and entrepreneurship
(Submitted as Global Solutions Paper)


In 2015, worldwide forced displacement was at its highest recorded level, surpassing 65 million. Out of this number, nearly 20 million people are those who fled their countries of origin to seek refuge in third countries. International responsibility sharing in terms of hosting the historical levels of refugee flows has so far been inadequate. Today, lower- and upper-middle income countries host 65 percent of the world’s refugees, mostly in urban settings. Whereas refugee camps provide access to basic needs such as shelter, food and healthcare, displaced individuals living in urban settings have to sustain their needs through their own means. In turn, this requires access to labour market. To facilitate formal labour market integration of refugees in host countries, the authors call on G20 to mobilize the private sector in developing sustainable solutions for the global refugee crisis, endorse a “Virtual Observatory for Refugee Integration” to be operated by the participation of domestic policy think tanks in refugee hosting countries to monitor and to advocate private sector based policies for the integration of refugees around the world, and encourage its members and host communities to initiate startup visa programmes for refugees.

JEL Classification:

J15, J61


  • Downloads: 185


Cite As

Güven Sak, Timur Kaymaz, Omar Kadkoy, and Murat Kenanoglu (2017). Forced migrants: labour market integration and entrepreneurship. Economics Discussion Papers, No 2017-61, Kiel Institute for the World Economy. http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/discussionpapers/2017-61

Comments and Questions

Anonymous - Two comments on this article
September 16, 2017 - 11:28

1. Figure 1 is quite difficult to understand. I believe the authors should clarify the axes and describe the figure into some more detail in the main text.

2. The authors may link their study to the recent suggestive evidence that volunteering is an important pathway for ethnic minorities' ...[more]

... labour market integration:

Baert, S., Vujić, S. (2016): Immigrant Volunteering: A Way Out of Labour Market Discrimination? Economics Letters, 146, 95-98.

Jiddah M.A. Ajayi - Re Forced Migrants
September 18, 2017 - 11:31

it is quite insightful,educative,and has brought to the fore,the impact of forced migrants,i strongly recommend it.

Anonymous - Comment
October 10, 2017 - 15:02

The refugee issue, especially the harm to innocent people, and the crisis of political leadership it has generated, cry out for new thinking. The numerous policy ideas offered in the paper by Guven Sak et al are a very welcome contribution to the discussion of shared responsibility for refugees ...[more]

... and what front line states can do to allow refugees to enhance their own well-being and prospects while making a productive contribution to the economies of those states.